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NDAR provides a single access to de-identified autism research data. For permission to download data, you will need an NDAR account with approved access to NDAR or a connected repository (AGRE, IAN, or the ATP). For NDAR access, you need to be a research investigator sponsored by an NIH recognized institution with federal wide assurance. See Request Access for more information.

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The filters you have selected from various query interfaces will be stored here, in the 'Filter Cart'. The database will be queried using filters added to your 'Filter Cart', when multiple filters are defined, each will be executed using 'AND' logic, so with each filter that is applied the result set gets smaller.

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Parents Knowledge of Behavioral Principles



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Element NameData TypeSizeRequiredDescriptionValue RangeNotesAliases
subjectkeyGUIDRequiredThe NDAR Global Unique Identifier (GUID) for research subjectNDAR*
src_subject_idString20RequiredSubject ID how it's defined in lab/projectid
interview_dateDateRequiredDate on which the interview/genetic test/sampling/imaging/biospecimen was completed. MM/DD/YYYYRequired field
interview_ageIntegerRequiredAge in months at the time of the interview/test/sampling/imaging.0 :: 1260Age is rounded to chronological month. If the research participant is 15-days-old at time of interview, the appropriate value would be 0 months. If the participant is 16-days-old, the value would be 1 month.
genderString20RequiredSex of the subjectM;FM = Male; F = Female
days_baselineIntegerRecommendedDays since baselinedayknow
assbdicString5RecommendedAssessment PointD;14;E;24;LB;36;72;96;120; 9; B; 3; 7; 144; 168;192; CD=MTA baseline assessment; 14=MTA 14 month assessment; E=MTA early termination assessment; B = MTA Pre-Baseline Screening Assessment (579/579); 09 = MTA 9 Month Assessment (530/530); 24=MTA 24 month assessment; LB=LNCG baseline assessment; 36=MTA and LNCG 3 year assessment; 72=MTA and LNCG 6 year assessment; 96=MTA and LNCG 8 year assessment; 03 = MTA 3 Month Assessment (438/687);120=MTA and LNCG 10 year assessment; 7= 7th Grade Assessment (221/276); 144 = MTA & LNCG 12 Month Assessment (578/578); 168 = MTA & LNCG 14 Month Assessment (585/585); 192 = MTA & LNCG 16 Month Assessment (505/505); C = MTA Pre-Baseline Screening Assessment (78/78)assknow
relationshipIntegerRecommendedRelationship of respondent to individual
1::88; 90;-999
1 = Biological mom; 2 = Biological dad; 3 = Grandparent; 4 = Special education (sped) teacher; 5 = General education teacher; 6 = Occupational therapist; 7 = Speech and language therapist; 8 = Behavioral therapist; 9 = Paraprofessional; 10 = Aide; 11 = Principal; 12 = Administrator; 13 = Other; 14 = Content teacher; 15 = Parent center director; 16 = Self; 17=Adoptive mother; 18=Adoptive father; 19=Foster mother; 20 = Foster father; 21=Grandmother; 22=Grandfather; 23=Step-mother; 24 = Step-father; 25=Aunt; 26=Uncle; 27=Missing Data; 28=Both parents;31= Grandmother from mother side; 32= Grandfather from mother side; 33= Grandmother from father side; 34= Grandfather from father side; 36= Brother; 37= Sister; 38= Cousin; 39= female caregiver; 40=male caregiver; 41=Female child; 42=Male child; 43=Spouse/Mate; 44=Friend; 45=Parent; 46=Significant other; 47=Sibling; 48=Son/Daughter; 49=Son-in-law/Daughter-in law; 50=Other Relative; 51=Paid caregiver; 52=Friends; 53=Roommate; 54=Supervisor; 55=mother's boyfriend; 56=other parental figure; 57=Summary; 58=counselor ; 59 = other female relative; 60 = other male relative; 61 = non-relative ; 62=Maternal Aunt; 63=Maternal Uncle; 64=Maternal Cousin; 65 = Paternal Aunt; 66=Paternal Uncle; 67=Paternal Cousin ; 68=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Grandmother; 69=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepmother and Grandmother; 70=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Grandmother and Foster Father; 71=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepmother and Foster Mother; 72=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Foster Mother; 73=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Biological/Adoptive Father; 74=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepmother and Biological/Adoptive Father; 75=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Other; 76=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepmother and Stepfather; 77=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepfather; 78=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Grandfather; 79=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepmother and Foster Father; 80=Biological/Adoptive Mother and Stepmother; 81=Guardian, female; 82=Other female; 83=Guardian, male; 84=Other male; 85=Other/Grandparent/Nanny; 86 = Mother, Father, Guardian; 87 = Daughter, son, grandchild; 88 = Professional (e.g., social worker, nurse, therapist, psychiatrist, or group home staff); 90=Other; -999=Missingrelknow
actbdicIntegerRecommendedActive status0::50=Inactive-Data collected after the 14 month treatment phase/after early termination from treatment phase/prior to treatment phase; 1=Active-Data collected during the 14 month treatment phase while subject received originally assigned treatment regardless of degree of compliance; 2=Active-This is the last active assessment for subjects who were about to violate treatment arm by receiving alternate treatment; 3=Active-This is the last active assessment for subjects who were about to leave the study by moving away;4=Yes, Active; 5=No, Not Activeactknow
siteString100RecommendedSiteStudy Sitesitenum
sjtypIntegerRecommendedSubject type1;21=MTA randomized trial subject; 2=Local normative comparison group (LNCG) subject
kn1IntegerRecommendedProbably the most important idea to keep in mind when first changing behavior is:1::41=To use both reward and punishment; 2=To reward every time the desired behavior occurs (CORRECT); 3=To be flexible about whether or not you reward; 4=To be sure the child understands why you want the behavior to change
kn2IntegerRecommendedA child begins to whine and cry when his parent explains why he can't go outside. How should the parent react?1::41=Ask the child why going outside is so important to him; 2=Explain that it is the parent's right to make such decisions; 3=Explain again why he should not go outside; 4=Ignore the whining and crying (CORRECT)
kn3IntegerRecommendedIn changing a child's behavior, a parent should try to use:1::41=About 1 reward for every punishment; 2=About one reward for every 5 punishments; 3=About 5 rewards for every punishment; 4=Practically all rewards (CORRECT)
kn4IntegerRecommendedWhich of the following is the least likely way for children to react to the person who punishes them?1::41=The child will try to avoid the punisher; 2=The child will have admiration and respect for the punisher (CORRECT); 3=The child may copy the punisher's methods and do similar things to playmates; 4=The child will associate the punishment with the punisher
kn5IntegerRecommendedIf punishment is used for a behavior such as playing football in the house, which type is probably best to use?1::41=Make the child do extra homework; 2=Clearly express your disapproval; 3=Remove the child to a boring situation each time (CORRECT); 4=A reasonable spanking
kn6IntegerRecommendedA child has been rewarded each time he cleans his room. In order to keep the room clean without having to use a reward, the next step should probably be to:1::41=Have a talk about how pleased you are and then stop giving the reward; 2=Give the reward about one out of five times; 3=Give the reward almost every time (CORRECT); 4=You must always reward it every time
kn7IntegerRecommendedParents who use lots of rewards for good behavior and few punishments will probably tend to have children who:1::41=Do not understand discipline; 2=Will not cooperate unless they are "paid"; 3=Take advantage of their parents; 4=Are well behaved and cooperative (CORRECT)
kn8IntegerRecommendedWhich of the following is most effective in getting a child to do homework?1::41=When you finish your homework you can watch TV (CORRECT); 2=You can watch this show on TV if you promise to do your homework when the show is over; 3=If you don�t do your homework tonight you cant watch TV at all tomorrow; 4=Explain the importance of school and the dangers of putting things off
kn9IntegerRecommendedThree of the following responses refer to forms of punishment which are mild and effective. Which one is not?1::41=Ingoring the undesirable behavior; 2=Sending the child to a dull room for a few minutes; 3=Taking away something the child likes; 4=Scolding (CORRECT)
kn10IntegerRecommendedEach time Mother starts to read, Billy begins making a lot of noise which prevents her from enjoying her reading time. The best way for Mother to get Billy to be quiet while she reads is to:1::41=Severely reprimand him when this occurs; 2=Pay close attention and praise and hug him when he plays quietly while she is reading and ignore his noisy behavior (CORRECT); 3=Call him to her and carefully explain how important it is for her to have quiet time for herself each time this occurs; 4=Tell him he wont get dessert after dinner if he continues
kn11IntegerRecommendedA father tells a child she cannot go to the store with him because she did not clean her room like she promised. She reacts by shouting, crying, and promising she will clean the room when she gets home. What should the father do?1::41=Ignore her and go to the store (CORRECT); 2=Take her to the store but make her clean her room when they return; 3=Calm her down and go help her clean her room together; 4=Talk to her and find out why she doesn�t take responsibility
kn12IntegerRecommendedA boy loves football. What is most likely to happen if, each time he is playing nicely with his sister, his father invites him to play football?1::41=He will always be asking his father to play football; 2=He will play nicely with his sister more often (CORRECT); 3=He will be annoyed with his father for interfering with his activities; 4=He will be encouraged to teach his sister to play football
kn13IntegerRecommendedTo record, graph, and note the direction of the change of a behavior is:1::41=A minor and optional step in a behavior change program; 2=An important step in a behavior change program (CORRECT); 3=A procedure employed only by scientists for research; 4=Time consuming and complicated - therefore these procedures should only be used in special cases
kn14IntegerRecommendedMrs. Thomas found out that spanking her seven-year-old son, Bob, did not seem to stop him from using "naughty" words. A friend suggested that rather than spanking him, she should send him to be by himself. The room that he is sent to should be:1::41=His own room so he will still have something to do; 2=Small and dark; 3=As uninteresting as possible (CORRECT); 4=A large room
kn15IntegerRecommendedA father is teaching his son to hit a thrown ball with a bat. Which of the following methods will probably most help his son to learn to hit?1::41=Let him try to hit the ball without saying anything so the child can learn on his own; 2=Occasionally tell him what he is doing wrong; 3=Occasionally tell him what he is doing right; 4=Tell him almost every time he does something right (CORRECT)
kn16IntegerRecommendedIf you want your child to develop proper study habits, you should:1::41=Encourage him to do his homework; 2=Help him to see school as pleasant; 3=Reward him whenever he studies (CORRECT); 4=Give him good reasons why he will need school
kn17IntegerRecommendedWhich of the following is the most effective form of punishment in the long run for reducing a child's undesirable behavior?1::41=Scolding him every time he does it; 2=Occasionally spanking him when he does it; 3=Sending him to his room for 5 minutes every time he does it (CORRECT); 4=Sending him to his room all afternoon every time he does it
kn18IntegerRecommendedJohnny has just torn up a new magazine. Of the following choices, which is the best way for his mother to discipline him?1::41=Tell him he will be spanked by his father when he gets home; 2=Punish him then and there (CORRECT); 3=Explain to Johnny the wrongness of his action; 4=Angrily scold Johnny so that he will learn that such and act is bad and upsetting to his mother
kn19IntegerRecommendedMr. Jones agreed to pay his son, Mike, 25 cents each day if he carries out the trash. If Mr. Jones forgets to give Mike the money for a few days, what is most likely to happen?1::41=Mike will continue to take out the trash because he realizes how important this is; 2=Mike will stop taking out the trash (CORRECT); 3=Mike will begin to do extra chores as well as take out the trash so that his father will notice how well he is doing and remember to give Mike the money; 4=Mike will start to misbehave to take out his anger about not being paid
kn20IntegerRecommendedIn changing a behavior, it is most important to use:1::41=Methods which have been tested by others; 2=Consequences which are rewarding to the child (CORRECT); 3=Consequences which are punitive to the child; 4=Rewards which do not bribe the child
kn21IntegerRecommendedIf you want your child to say "please" and "thank you" at the table, it is probably most important to:1::41=Reprimand him when he forgets to say them; 2=Explain why good manners are important; 3=Remember to compliment him when he remembers to say them (CORRECT); 4=Praise other members of the family when they use these words
kn22IntegerRecommendedStan is doing a number of things that greatly disturb his parents. It would be best for them to:1::41=Try to quickly eliminate all of these undesirable behaviors at once; 2=Select just a few behaviors to deal with at first; 3=Select the single behavior they find most disruptive and concentrate on changing that (CORRECT); 4=Wait for 28-30 days before beginning to try to change his behaviors to make certain they are stable and persistent
kn23IntegerRecommendedIf you want to make a behavior a long-lasting habit, you should:1::41=Reward it every time; 2=First reward it every time and then reward it occasionally (CORRECT); 3=Promise something the child wants very much; 4=Give several reasons why it is important and remind the child of these reasons often
kn24IntegerRecommendedJimmy sometimes says obscene words, but only in front of his mother. She has been shocked and makes her feelings clear to him. How should she react when he uses obscene words?1::41=Wash his mouth out with soap; 2=Ignore him when he uses obscene words (CORRECT); 3=Tell him how bad he is and how she doesn�t like him when he uses those words; 4=Explain to him the reason such words are not used
kn25IntegerRecommendedIn a reading group, the teacher gives each child candy plus praise for each correct answer. Which of the following statements is most true?1::41=The candy is a bribe and doesn�t belong in a school setting; 2=At first the children work to earn the candy and may later work for the praise alone (CORRECT); 3=Children shouldn�t be paid for doing their school work; 4=It probably doesn�t make much difference whether or not candy is used because the children who want to learn to read will do so and the others wont
kn26IntegerRecommendedA child often cries over any small matter that bothers her. How should her parents react to best reduce her crying?1::41=Reward her when she reacts without crying (CORRECT); 2=Use a mild punishment when she cries; 3=Try to find out what is really troubling the child and deal with that; 4=Provide her with something interesting so she will stop crying
kn27IntegerRecommendedPunishment will not be effective unless you:1::41=Prevent the child from escaping while you punish him (CORRECT); 2=Throw all of your emotions into the punishment so the child will realize how serious you are; 3=Follow it with a careful explanation of your reasons for the punishment; 4=Have tried everything else
kn28IntegerRecommendedWhich would be the best example of an appropriate way to praise Mary?1::41=Good girl Mary; 2=I love you Mary; 3=I like the way you helped me put the dishes away (CORRECT); 4=I'll tell your father how nice you were when he comes home
kn29IntegerRecommendedA major problem has been getting Leon to bed in the evening. His mother has decided to change this and wants to measure the relevant behaviors. Which is the best way for her to do this?1::41=Each evening record whether or not he goes to bed on time (CORRECT); 2=Chart his behavior all day long up to and including bedtime to try to find out what causes his not wanting to go to bed; 3=Each week make a note of how easy or difficult it has been to get him to bed; 4=Ask Leon to keep his own record each week
kn30IntegerRecommendedHow often a behavior occurs is probably mostly controlled by:1::41=The persons attitude about his behavior; 2=What happens to him at the same time the behavior occurs; 3=What happens to him just before the behavior occurs; 4=What happens to him just after the behavior occurs (CORRECT)
knnmcorIntegerRecommendedNumber of Correct ResponsesIncludes All Items: 1-30. NOTE: A minimum of 24 Items must be present to receive this score
knprcorFloatRecommendedPercentage of Correct ResponsesIncludes All Items: 1-30. NOTE 1: A minimum of 24 Items must be present to receive this score. NOTE 2: Any missing Item is treated as an �incorrect� response; % based on total of 30 Items
Data Structure

This page displays the data structure defined for the measure identified in the title and structure short name. The table below displays a list of data elements in this structure (also called variables) and the following information:

  • Element Name: This is the standard element name
  • Data Type: Which type of data this element is, e.g. String, Float, File location.
  • Size: If applicable, the character limit of this element
  • Required: This column displays whether the element is Required for valid submissions, Recommended for valid submissions, Conditional on other elements, or Optional
  • Description: A basic description
  • Value Range: Which values can appear validly in this element (case sensitive for strings)
  • Notes: Expanded description or notes on coding of values
  • Aliases: A list of currently supported Aliases (alternate element names)
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Distribution for DataStructure: knowledg01 and Element:
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Filters enable researchers to view the data shared in NDA before applying for access or for selecting specific data for download or NDA Study assignment. For those with access to NDA shared data, you may select specific values to be included by selecting an individual bar chart item or by selecting a range of values (e.g. interview_age) using the "Add Range" button. Note that not all elements have appropriately distinct values like comments and subjectkey and are not available for filtering. Additionally, item level detail is not always provided by the research community as indicated by the number of null values given.

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